Has the advent of modern adjuvant systemic therapy for melanoma rendered sentinel node biopsy unnecessary?
Abstract The prognostic value of sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is well established and SNB was therefore adopted as a requirement for pathological staging of melanomas>1 mm thick in the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 8th edition. Consequently, a negative SNB status became an eligibility criterion for clinical trials of adjuvant systemic therapy in resected stage IIB/C melanoma. However, since the Keynote 716 trial demonstrated an improvement in relapse-free survival (RFS) in patients with Stage IIB/C melanoma, all of whom had SNB staging, some have argued that SNB is no longer required for patients with T3 and T4 primary [...]
Survival update of neoadjuvant ipilimumab plus nivolumab in macroscopic stage III melanoma in the OpACIN and OpACIN-neo trials.
Abstract Background Neoadjuvant ipilimumab plus nivolumab has yielded high response rates in patients with macroscopic stage III melanoma. These response rates translated to high short-term survival rates. However, data on long-term survival and disease recurrence are lacking. Patients and methods In OpACIN, 20 patients with macroscopic stage III melanoma were randomized to ipilimumab 3 mg/kg plus nivolumab 1 mg/kg q3w four cycles of adjuvant or split two cycles of neoadjuvant and two adjuvant. In OpACIN-neo, 86 patients with macroscopic stage III melanoma were randomized to arm A (2× ipilimumab 3 mg/kg plus nivolumab 1 mg/kg q3w; n = 30), [...]
Genomic profiling of metastatic basal cell carcinoma reveals candidate drivers of disease and therapeutic targets.
Abstract Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are human beings’ most common malignant tumors. Most are easily managed by surgery or topical therapies, and metastasis is rare. Although BCCs can become locally advanced, metastatic BCCs are very uncommon and may be biologically distinct. We assessed the clinicopathologic characteristics of 17 patients with metastatic BCC and pursued whole-exome sequencing of tumor and germline DNA from 8 patients. Genomic profiling revealed aberrant activation of Hedgehog signaling and alterations in GLI transcriptional regulators and Notch and Hippo signaling. Matched local recurrences of primary BCCs and metastases from 3 patients provided evidence of a clonal [...]
Recursive Partitioning to Determine Order of Significance of Regional Metastasis Characteristics in Head and Neck Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Abstract Background: The order of significance of clinicopathologic characteristics for the prognosis of patients with regional metastases from head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (HNcSCC) is not well characterized. This study aimed to understand the impact of the known characteristics, including the presence of immunosuppression, number of deposits, largest deposit size, location and laterality of deposits, and presence of extranodal extension (ENE) on overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS). Methods: A retrospective study of 366 patients treated with curative intent for HNcSCC with regional metastatic disease was undertaken using recursive partitioning analysis (RPA). Results: Using RPA modeling, the study determined [...]
Utility of optical coherence tomography in basal cell naevus syndrome: A case report
Abstract Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a useful non-invasive diagnostic tool for diagnosing and monitoring treatment of basal cell carcinomas. We describe the use of OCT in a patient with Basal Cell Naevus Syndrome. Through measuring tumour depth on OCT, management of individual tumours was triaged accordingly using 0.4 mm tumour depth as a cut-off for surgical and non-surgical management. OCT has potential to reduce unnecessary excisions and associated morbidity in this population of patients. Read Full Paper
Survival outcomes of perineural spread in head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
Abstract Aim: To present an institution's experience and survival outcomes for patients with head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (HNcSCC) and perineural spread (PNS). Method: Retrospective study of patients with HNcSCC and PNS treated between January 2010 and August 2020 from the Sydney Head and Neck Cancer Institute database, Sydney, Australia; a high-volume, tertiary, academic head and neck centre. Patient demographics, primary site, involved cranial nerves, treatment modality, loco-regional failure and survival data were obtained. Results: Forty-five patients were identified, of which 32 patients were male (71%). Mean age at diagnosis was 68.7 years (range 43-90). Median follow-up was 16.1 months [...]
High-dimensional and spatial analysis reveals immune landscape dependent progression in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma
Abstract Purpose: The tumour immune microenvironment impacts the biological behaviour of the tumour but its effect on clinical outcomes in head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (HNcSCC) is largely unknown. Experimental design: We compared the immune milieu of high-risk HNcSCC that never progressed to metastasis with those that metastasised using multi-parameter imaging mass cytometry. The cohort included both immunosuppressed patients (IS) and patients with an absence of clinical immune-suppression (ACIS). Spatial analyses were used to identify cellular interactions that were associated with tumour behaviour. Results: Non-progressing primary HNcSCC were characterised by higher CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses, including numerically increased [...]
Whole genome analysis reveals the genomic complexity in metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
Abstract Metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) is a highly morbid disease requiring radical surgery and adjuvant therapy, which is associated with a poor prognosis. Yet, compared to other advanced malignancies, relatively little is known of the genomic landscape of metastatic CSCC. We have previously reported the mutational signatures and mutational patterns of CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) regions in metastatic CSCC. However, many other genomic components (indel signatures, non-coding drivers, and structural variants) of metastatic CSCC have not been reported. To this end, we performed whole genome sequencing on lymph node metastases and blood DNA from 25 CSCC patients with [...]
Benchmarking Survival Outcomes Following Surgical Management of pT3 and pT4 Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck.
Abstract Background: pT3/4 head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (HNcSCCs) are associated with poor outcomes, including local recurrence, metastasis and death. Whilst surgery remains the standard treatment for advanced HNcSCC, novel systemic therapies, such as immunotherapy, are being used earlier in the treatment paradigm. It is imperative that the clinical outcomes of surgery are clearly described so that conventional and emerging treatment modalities can be better integrated and sequenced in the management of pT3/4 HNcSCC. Methods: Patients with confirmed pT3/4 HNcSCC undergoing curative surgical resection between 2014-2020 were identified retrospectively from a prospectively maintained research database. The primary outcomes of [...]
Outcomes after definitive treatment for head and neck angiosarcoma.
Abstract Introduction: Head and neck angiosarcoma (HN-AS) is a rare and aggressive, representing <1% of all head and neck malignancies. It is characterized by a high rate of local recurrence and poor 5-year survival (10-54%). Australian data in this rare disease is lacking. We aim review the clinical outcomes of HN-AS from two high volume head and neck cancer units in Australia. Methods: Retrospective chart review. Results: A total 26 patients were identified, consist of predominantly male patients (81%) with a mean age of 77 year old. Most of the HN-AS arises from the scalp (62%). The 5-year overall survival (OS) and [...]