Nicotinamide Inhibits T Cell Exhaustion and Increases Differentiation of CD8 Effector T Cells.
Abstract One of the limitations of immunotherapy is the development of a state referred to as T cell exhaustion (TEx) whereby T cells express inhibitory receptors (IRs) and lose production of effectors involved in killing of their targets. In the present studies we have used the repeated stimulation model with anti CD3 and anti CD28 to understand the factors involved in TEx development and treatments that may reduce changes of TEx. The results show that addition of nicotinamide (NAM) involved in energy supply to cells prevented the development of inhibitory receptors (IRs). This was particularly evident for the IRs [...]
Pyrexia in patients treated with dabrafenib plus trametinib across clinical trials in BRAF-mutant cancers.
Abstract Background: Dabrafenib plus trametinib has demonstrated clinical benefit across multiple BRAF-mutant tumours, leading to approval for resected stage III and metastatic melanoma, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer. Pyrexia is a common adverse event in patients treated with dabrafenib plus trametinib. Here, we characterise the incidence, patterns and management of pyrexia in patients receiving dabrafenib plus trametinib in clinical trials. Methods: Patients (N = 1076) included in the analysis received dabrafenib plus trametinib in the following clinical trials: phase II registration trial in advanced NSCLC (N = 82), phase III COMBI-AD study in resectable stage III melanoma (N [...]
Repurposing Melanoma Chemotherapy to Activate Inflammasomes in the Treatment of BRAF/MAPK Inhibitor Resistant Melanoma.
Abstract The development of resistance to treatments of melanoma is commonly associated with an upregulation of the MAPK pathway and the development of an undifferentiated state. Previous studies have suggested that melanoma with these resistance characteristics may be susceptible to innate death mechanisms such as pyroptosis triggered by the activation of inflammasomes. In this study, we have taken cell lines from patients before and after the development of resistance to BRAF V600 inhibitors and exposed the resistant melanoma to temozolomide (a commonly used chemotherapy) with and without chloroquine to inhibit autophagy. It was found that melanoma with an inflammatory [...]