Systemic LRG1 expression in melanoma is associated with disease progression and recurrence.
Abstract The response rates upon neoadjuvant immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) in stage III melanoma are higher as compared with stage IV disease. Given that successful ICB depends on systemic immune response, we hypothesized that systemic immune suppression might be a mechanism responsible for lower response rates in late-stage disease, and also potentially with disease recurrence in early-stage disease. Plasma and serum samples of cohorts of patients with melanoma were analyzed for circulating proteins using mass spectrometry proteomic profiling and Olink proteomic assay. A cohort of paired samples of patients with stage III that progressed to stage IV disease (n [...]
Overall Survival and Response with Nivolumab and Relatlimab in Advanced Melanoma.
Abstract Background: A phase 2/3 trial — A Study of Relatlimab Plus Nivolumab Versus Nivolumab Alone in Participants With Advanced Melanoma (RELATIVITY-047) — evaluated nivolumab + relatlimab as a fixed-dose combination and found a significant progression-free survival (PFS) benefit over nivolumab monotherapy in previously untreated unresectable or metastatic melanoma. We now report updated PFS and safety data and the first results for overall survival (OS) and objective response rate (ORR). Methods: Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive nivolumab 480 mg and relatlimab 160 mg fixed-dose combination or nivolumab 480 mg alone, given intravenously every 4 weeks. PFS (primary end [...]
Health-related quality of life with nivolumab plus Relatlimab versus nivolumab monotherapy in patients with previously untreated unresectable or metastatic melanoma: RELATIVITY-047 trial.
Abstract Background: In the phase II/III RELATIVITY-047 trial, a novel fixed-dose combination (FDC) of nivolumab plus relatlimab (NIVO + RELA; a programmed death-1 and a lymphocyte-activation gene 3 inhibitor, respectively) significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) versus NIVO in patients with previously untreated unresectable or metastatic melanoma (median follow-up, 13.2 months) with stable health-related quality of life (HRQoL), although grade three or four treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) were more frequent with the combination. Updated HRQoL results (median follow-up, 19.3 months) are presented. Methods: Patients were randomised to receive intravenous NIVO + RELA (480 mg and 160 mg, respectively) or NIVO [...]
The molecular and functional landscape of resistance to immune checkpoint blockade in melanoma.
Abstract Resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitor therapies in melanoma is common and remains an intractable clinical challenge. In this study, we comprehensively profile immune checkpoint inhibitor resistance mechanisms in short-term tumor cell lines and matched tumor samples from melanoma patients progressing on immune checkpoint inhibitors. Combining genome, transcriptome, and high dimensional flow cytometric profiling with functional analysis, we identify three distinct programs of immunotherapy resistance. Here we show that resistance programs include (1) the loss of wild-type antigen expression, resulting from tumor-intrinsic IFNγ signaling and melanoma de-differentiation, (2) the disruption of antigen presentation via multiple independent mechanisms affecting MHC [...]
IFN-γ signature enables selection of neoadjuvant treatment in patients with stage III melanoma.
Abstract Neoadjuvant ipilimumab + nivolumab has demonstrated high pathologic response rates in stage III melanoma. Patients with low intra-tumoral interferon-γ (IFN-γ) signatures are less likely to benefit. We show that domatinostat (a class I histone deacetylase inhibitor) addition to anti-PD-1 + anti-CTLA-4 increased the IFN-γ response and reduced tumor growth in our murine melanoma model, rationalizing evaluation in patients. To stratify patients into IFN-γ high and low cohorts, we developed a baseline IFN-γ signature expression algorithm, which was prospectively tested in the DONIMI trial. Patients with stage III melanoma and high intra-tumoral IFN-γ scores were randomized to neoadjuvant nivolumab [...]
Efficacy of ipilimumab 3mn/kg following progression on low-dose ipilimumab in metastatic melanoma.
Abstract Background: Differing doses of ipilimumab (IPI) are used in combination with an anti-PD1 antibody in advanced melanoma. There is no data on the outcomes of patients who progress following low-dose IPI (< 3 mg/kg) and are subsequently treated with IPI 3 mg/kg (IPI3). We conducted a multicentre retrospective survey to assess the efficacy of this strategy. Methods: Patients with resected stage III, unresectable stage III or IV melanoma who received low dose IPI (< 3 mg/kg) with an anti-PD1 antibody with recurrence (neo/adjuvant) or progressive disease (metastatic), who then received IPI3± anti-PD1 antibody were eligible. Best investigator-determined Response [...]
Rare immune-related adverse events in patients with melanoma: incidence, spectrum, and clinical presentations.
Abstract Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) are side effects of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy (ICI). While common irAEs have been well characterized, there are more limited data on rare immune related adverse events (RirAEs) due to low incidence. Lack of characterization of these entities has led to difficulties in accurate diagnosis and management. Here, we conducted a multi-institution analysis of all patients with stage III/IV melanoma who developed RirAEs after being treated with ICIs (anti-PD-1/L1, anti-CTLA-4, and combination PD-1/CTLA-4 blockade) at three institutions (Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Melanoma Institute of Australia). RirAEs were defined as those [...]
Clinical features and outcomes of cardiac involvement in patients with cancer treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors.
Abstract Background: Despite the increasing prevalence of therapies utilizing immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), the associated cardiovascular complications have been poorly reported. Given the fatality of ICI-related complications, especially myocarditis, optimal risk stratification to predict major adverse cardio- and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) in patients receiving ICIs is mandatory. Methods: We collected clinical data from patients receiving ICIs, and the primary outcomes were MACCEs, including myocarditis, heart failure, and ischemic stroke. Other systemic immune responses relating to ICIs were also recorded. The median follow-up duration was 3 years. Results: Among 580 patients, the incidence of MACCEs was 3.9%. Older patients, male [...]
Case series: Immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced transverse myelitis.
Abstract Introduction: Increasing implementation of the highly efficacious immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has raised awareness of their various complications in the form of immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Transverse myelitis following ICIs is thought to be a rare but serious neurologic irAE and knowledge is limited about this distinct clinical entity. Cases: We describe four patients across three tertiary centers in Australia with ICI-induced transverse myelitis. Three patients had a diagnosis of stage III–IV melanoma treated with nivolumab and one patient had stage IV non-small cell lung cancer treated with pembrolizumab. All patients had longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis on magnetic [...]
Intratumoral CD16+ macrophages are associated with clinical outcomes of patients with metastatic melanoma treated with combination anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 therapy.
Abstract Purpose: This study characterizes intratumoural macrophage populations within baseline melanoma biopsies from patients with advanced melanoma who received either anti-PD-1 monotherapy or combination with anti-CTLA-4. Particularly, FcγRIIIa (CD16) expressing macrophage densities were investigated for associations with response and progression-free survival. Experimental design: Patients with advanced melanoma who received either anti-PD-1 monotherapy or combination anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 were retrospectively identified. Macrophage populations were analyzed within baseline melanoma biopsies via multiplex immunohistochemistry in relation to treatment outcomes. Results: Patients who responded to combination ICI contained higher CD16+ macrophage densities than those who did not respond (196 vs 7 cells/mm2; p [...]