Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the use of melanoma surveillance photography to the Improve early detection of MelanomA in ultra-hiGh and high-risk patiEnts (the IMAGE trial).
Abstract Introduction: Melanoma surveillance photography (MSP) is a comprehensive surveillance method that comprises two- or three-dimensional total body photography with tagged digital dermoscopy, performed at prescribed intervals. It has the potential to reduce unnecessary biopsies and enhance early detection of melanoma, but it is not yet standard care for all high-risk patients in Australia. This protocol describes a randomised controlled trial (RCT) designed to evaluate the clinical impact and cost-effectiveness of using MSP for the surveillance of individuals at ultra-high or high risk of melanoma from a health system perspective. Methods and design: This is a registry-based, unblinded, multi-site, [...]
Adjuvant radiotherapy after salvage surgery for melanoma recurrence in a node field following a previous lymph node dissection.
Abstract Background and objectives: Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) can be given to melanoma patients following salvage surgery for node field recurrence after a previous regional node dissection, but the value of this treatment strategy is poorly documented. This study evaluated long-term node field control and survival of patients treated in this way in an era before effective adjuvant systemic therapy became available. Methods: Data for 76 patients treated between 1990 and 2011 were extracted from an institutional database. Baseline patient characteristics, treatment details and oncological outcomes were analysed. Results: Adjuvant RT with conventional fractionation (median dose 48 Gy in 20 [...]
The molecular and functional landscape of resistance to immune checkpoint blockade in melanoma.
Abstract Resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitor therapies in melanoma is common and remains an intractable clinical challenge. In this study, we comprehensively profile immune checkpoint inhibitor resistance mechanisms in short-term tumor cell lines and matched tumor samples from melanoma patients progressing on immune checkpoint inhibitors. Combining genome, transcriptome, and high dimensional flow cytometric profiling with functional analysis, we identify three distinct programs of immunotherapy resistance. Here we show that resistance programs include (1) the loss of wild-type antigen expression, resulting from tumor-intrinsic IFNγ signaling and melanoma de-differentiation, (2) the disruption of antigen presentation via multiple independent mechanisms affecting MHC [...]
Survival update of neoadjuvant ipilimumab plus nivolumab in macroscopic stage III melanoma in the OpACIN and OpACIN-neo trials.
Abstract Background Neoadjuvant ipilimumab plus nivolumab has yielded high response rates in patients with macroscopic stage III melanoma. These response rates translated to high short-term survival rates. However, data on long-term survival and disease recurrence are lacking. Patients and methods In OpACIN, 20 patients with macroscopic stage III melanoma were randomized to ipilimumab 3 mg/kg plus nivolumab 1 mg/kg q3w four cycles of adjuvant or split two cycles of neoadjuvant and two adjuvant. In OpACIN-neo, 86 patients with macroscopic stage III melanoma were randomized to arm A (2× ipilimumab 3 mg/kg plus nivolumab 1 mg/kg q3w; n = 30), [...]
Genomic profiling of metastatic basal cell carcinoma reveals candidate drivers of disease and therapeutic targets.
Abstract Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are human beings’ most common malignant tumors. Most are easily managed by surgery or topical therapies, and metastasis is rare. Although BCCs can become locally advanced, metastatic BCCs are very uncommon and may be biologically distinct. We assessed the clinicopathologic characteristics of 17 patients with metastatic BCC and pursued whole-exome sequencing of tumor and germline DNA from 8 patients. Genomic profiling revealed aberrant activation of Hedgehog signaling and alterations in GLI transcriptional regulators and Notch and Hippo signaling. Matched local recurrences of primary BCCs and metastases from 3 patients provided evidence of a clonal [...]
Representativeness of initial skin biopsies showing pure desmoplastic melanoma: implications for management
Abstract Desmoplastic melanoma (DM) is an uncommon subtype of melanoma with distinct clinicopathological features. It is classified into pure desmoplastic melanoma (PDM) when the proportion of desmoplastic melanoma is ≥90% of the dermally-invasive component, and mixed desmoplastic melanoma (MDM) when the proportion of desmoplastic melanoma is <90%. Studies have reported a lower sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB)-positivity rate in PDM compared to MDM and non-DM. As a result, some have recommended not performing SLNB in PDM patients. When PDM is identified in a partial biopsy of a melanoma, there is a risk that sampling bias may under-recognise MDM, but [...]
Embedding electronic patient-reported outcome measures into routine care for patients with stage III MELanoma (ePROMs-MEL): protocol for a prospective, longitudinal, mixed-methods pilot study.
Abstract Introduction: The benefits of patient-reported feedback, using questionnaires that allow patients to report how they feel and function without any interpretation from healthcare professionals, are well established. However, patient-reported outcomes measures (PROMs) are not routinely collected in patients with melanoma in Australia. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of implementing electronic PROMs (ePROMs) into routine care from the perspectives of patients with stage III melanoma and their treating clinical team. Methods and analysis: A minimum of 50 patients and 5 clinicians will be recruited to this prospective, longitudinal pilot study (ePROMs-MELanoma). The [...]
Perspectives and Experiences of Patient-Led Melanoma Surveillance Using Digital Technologies From Clinicians Involved in the MEL-SELF Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial: Qualitative Interview Study
Abstract Background: The growing number of melanoma patients who need long-term surveillance increasingly exceeds the capacity of the dermatology workforce, particularly outside of metropolitan areas. Digital technologies that enable patients to perform skin self-examination and send dermoscopic images of lesions of concern to a dermatologist (mobile teledermoscopy) are a potential solution. If these technologies and the remote delivery of melanoma surveillance are to be incorporated into routine clinical practice, they need to be accepted by clinicians providing melanoma care, such as dermatologists and general practitioners (GPs). Objective: This study aimed to explore perceptions of potential benefits and harms of [...]
Prognostic Significance and Management of Sentinel Nodes in the Triangular Intermuscular Space of Patients with Melanoma.
Abstract Background The clinical significance of sentinel nodes (SNs) in the triangular intermuscular space (TIS) of patients with melanoma is poorly understood. This study aimed to determine their incidence and positivity rate, and to report their management and patient outcomes. Methods This was a single-institution retrospective cohort study of patients with unilateral or bilateral TIS SNs on lymphoscintigraphy treated between 1992 and 2017. Recurrence-free survival was analyzed. Results Lymphoscintigraphy identified TIS SNs in 266 patients. They were bilateral in 17 patients. Of the 2296 patients with a melanoma on the upper back, 259 (11%) had TIS SNs. Procurement of [...]